green cooling initiative: International agreements

»Promoting green cooling worldwide«

International agreements

The Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is the first universally adopted international agreement. It requires all countries to phase out production and use of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) according to specific timetables.

  • switch to Table
  • switch to Chart
The expected phase-out of CFCs and HCFCs in developing and developed countries.
Year 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040
CFC developed countries (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 25 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CFC developing countries (%) 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 20 20 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
HCFC developed countries (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 65 65 65 65 65 65 25 25 25 25 25 10 10 10 10 10 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
HCFC developing countries (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 90 90 90 90 65 65 65 65 65 65 32.5 32.5 32.5 32.5 32.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 0

In order to comply with the provisions agreed to in the Montreal Protocol, countries adopt certain policies and introduce policy instruments that are stipulated in their HCFC phase-out management plans (HPMPs):

The Multilateral Fund (MLF) was established to assist developing countries (called Article 5 countries) in achieving compliance with the Montreal Protocol’s control measures. Financial and technical assistance is provided for closure of the ODS production plants, the conversion of industrial sectors, technical assistance, information and know-how dissemination, training and capacity building.

HFC Amendment under the Montreal Protocol

The recent addition to the Montreal Protocol, called the Kigali Amendment, was signed by the Parties of the Montreal Protocol on October 15, 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda. The Kigali Agreement gradually phases down the use of HFC at a global level. It requires all countries to phase out the use and production of HFCs according to the below timetables.

  • switch to Table
  • switch to Chart
The expected phase-out of HFCs in developing and developed countries.
Year 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2049 2050
A2-1 (%) 90 90 90 90 90 60 60 60 60 60 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
A2-2 (%) 95 95 95 95 95 65 65 65 65 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
A5-1 (%) 100 100 100 100 100 90 90 90 90 90 90 70 70 70 70 70 50 50 50 50 50 20 20 20 20 20 20
A5-2 (%) 100 100 100 100 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 80 70 70 70 70 70 15 15 15 15
0% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The signatory countries are split into four groups (as shown in the graph). The successive steps will lead to a gradual reduction in the use and availability of HFCs, thereby reducing large emissions of GHGs.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental agreement adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and in force since 2005. It contains legally binding commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for industrialised countries (as defined in Annex I to the Protocol). The Protocol’s first commitment period ended in 2012 and a second period runs until 2020. Within the UNFCCC processes, states are working on a new international climate agreement that is supposed to be introduced in 2015 and implemented from 2020 where the use of all greenhouse gases should be limited on the global level.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are among the gases controlled under the Kyoto Protocol.

NAMAs under the UNFCCC

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam sectors address the limitation and mitigation of the direct and indirect emissions of these sectors. In general, NAMAs are voluntary policies or activities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that

  • are appropriate for the specific implementing country
  • recognise different capabilities and capacities of each country, and
  • combine the development agenda with climate protection targets.

More information