The UNFCCC divides parties into different groups according to their commitments. Annex I parties are industrialised countries and some economies in transition, and non-annex I countries are mostly developing countries.
A business-as-usual scenario serves as a reference scenario to estimate the future potential for emission reductions. It can be a powerful tool to simulate future emissions and demand for fluorinated substances. In different scenarios, mitigation measures can be illustrated by the models for each sector to demonstrate the reduction potential in a quantitative manner.
Halocarbons containing only chlorine, fluorine and carbon atoms; these are both ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases. CFCs were the most commonly used of the chemicals controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Since the end of 2009 they have been virtually phased out, with remaining uses limited to medical inhalers in a very small number of countries.
A measure of the energy efficiency of a refrigerating system, which is defined as the ratio between the refrigerating capacity and the power consumed by the system and primarily dependant on the working cycle and the temperature levels (evaporating/condensing temperature) as well as on the properties of the refrigerant, system design and size (the comparable term “EER” or “energy efficiency ratio” is also used).
A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis.
Similar to the COP, but the performance is tested at one defined inside and outside temperature at full cooling capacity. Test conditions are derived from an ISO standard and vary slightly between countries but this does not lead to significantly different results.
End of life emissions refer to the emissions caused by the release of refrigerant when old or decommissioned equipment is disposed of.
The gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and emit radiation within the spectrum of the thermal infrared radiation that is emitted by the Earth’s surface, by the atmosphere and by clouds. This property causes the greenhouse effect.
An index comparing the climate impact of an emission of a greenhouse gas relative to emitting the same amount of carbon dioxide. The GWP of carbon dioxide is standardised to 1. GWP includes the radiative efficiency, i.e. infrared-absorbing ability, of the gas as well as the rate at which it decays from the atmosphere. A GWP is calculated over a time interval of typically 20, 100 or 500 years.
A global initiative that provides a platform for businesses to work with the UN and align their operations with universal principles on human rights, labour, anti-corruption and the environment. NGOs and public research institutions also participate in the Global Compact.
Chemical compounds consisting of one or more carbon atoms surrounded only by hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons such as propane and isobutene can be used as refrigerants. They have no ozone-depleting potential and very low global warming potential.
Halocarbons containing only hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon atoms. Because HCFCs contain chlorine, they contribute to ozone depletion and they are also greenhouse gases. HCFCs were used as intermediate replacements for CFCs, but they are being phased-out by the Montreal Protocol and will be entirely banned as of 2030.
Halocarbons containing only carbon, hydrogen and fluorine atoms. Because HFCs contain no chlorine, bromine or iodine, they do not deplete the ozone layer, but like other halocarbons they are potent greenhouse gases. Consumption of HFCs is growing world-wide, due to their function as replacement substances for CFCs and HCFCs.
A scheme comprising policy and technical elements that enable a country to phase out the consumption of HCFCs within the schedules prescribed in the relevant amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
In cooling technology such as air conditioners, inverters enable the control of the compressor speed, so the compressor runs with fewer rotations per minute when less cooling is required, which improves the energy efficiency.
One value is given that includes the efficiency while operating at various capacities. The efficiency at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% capacity is measured and it is assumed that the unit runs at these capacities at 1%, 42%, 45% and 12% respectively of its running time (AHRI standard 550/590-2003). The percentages can be varied, given the NPLV (non-standard part load value).
The world’s largest developer and publisher of international standards.
The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. It entered into force on 16th February 2005.It contains legally binding commitments, in addition to those included in the UNFCCC. Countries included in Annex B of the Protocol agreed to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions (specifically carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012.
The LCCP expands the TEWI concept to include emissions during manufacturing.
MEPS are set by some countries to eliminate less efficient products from the market and promote those with highest efficiencies. This is often accompanied by a labelling scheme providing information to customers. MEPS are usually increased stepwise to slowly transform the market to highly efficient products.
A fund established in 1991 to assist developing (article 5 or short A5) countries in meeting their Montreal Protocol commitments, through financing activities including industrial conversion, technical assistance, training and capacity building.
Adopted in Montreal in 1987 and subsequently adjusted and amended in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), Montreal (1997) and Beijing (1999). It controls the consumption and production of chlorine- and bromine-containing chemicals, known as ozone depleting substances (ODSs) that destroy the stratospheric ozone layer. To date 197 signatory states have ratified the Montreal Protocol.
A set of policies and actions that countries undertake as part of a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The term recognises that different countries may take different nationally appropriate action on the basis of equity and in accordance with common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. It also emphasizes financial assistance from developed countries to developing countries to reduce emissions.
A relative index indicating the extent to which a chemical product may cause ozone depletion compared with the depletion caused by CFC-11. Specifically, the ODP of an ozone depleting substance (ODS) is defined as the integrated change in total ozone per unit mass emission of that substance relative to the integrated change in total ozone per unit mass emission of CFC-11.
Substances known to deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. The ODS controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, hydrobromofluorocarbons and bromochloromethane.
A fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system, which absorbs heat at a low temperature and a low pressure of the fluid and rejects it at a higher temperature and a higher pressure of the fluid usually involving changes of the phase of the fluid.
A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed circuit in which the refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting and rejecting heat (i.e. heating and cooling).
Several temperatures are included to account for different cooling needs during the course of the cooling period when a unit is not running at full capacity. In the US the (S)EER is often given in the unit ‘British Thermal Units per hour’. A division by the conversion factor of 3.412 makes a comparison with the (S)EER in W/W possible.
Solar Chill is an initiative of NGOs, UN and bilateral development organisations, research institutes and industry, which aims at providing affordable and environmentally friendly vaccine coolers and refrigerators for parts of the world that have no or unreliable electricity supplies.
The Technology Mechanism of the UNFCCC targets an accelerated technology transfer across all sectors and countries globally to allow the deployment of the least climate harming technologies. The Technology Executive Committee (TEC), and Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) were formed to implement the technology mechanism.
This concept takes into account direct and indirect emissions over the lifetime (excluding indirect emissions during production and disposal) and gives one value in CO2 equivalents.
In VRF systems, one outdoor condensing unit is connected to multiple indoor units. These can be individually controlled and therefore run with varying speeds. Compared to other systems that do not allow individual controlling and part-load, VRF systems allow for substantial energy savings.