Lesotho Meteorological Services was created in 1974 as a division within the Department of Hydrology and Meteorological services. In 1988 when this department was upgraded to the present department of Water Affairs, LMS became a distinct 'Cost Centre' with its own budget but still within the department of Water Affairs. It was finally upgraded to the status of a fully-fledged department under the Ministry of Natural Resources on the 1st August 2000, which is now the Ministry of Energy, Meteorology and Water Affairs.
Meteorological records in Lesotho go far back to 1889. The responsibility to collect meteorological data was shared by both the British administration and the South African authority. One of the first tasks undertaken by LMS when it was formed was to collect all the climate records of the country, thus LMS possesses a Climate Record of over 120 years.