Newsletter 11/2016, Iss. 3 Green Cooling Initiative

The Green Cooling Initiative - promoting climate-friendly, sustainable cooling worldwide!

Content of Newsletter:


28th Meeting of Parties to the Montreal Protocol: Agreement reached to phase out HFCs

Kigali - The 28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (MOP), held in Rwanda from 10 to 14 October 2016, has set a milestone for climate change mitigation. The Kigali Amendment to the Protocol now mandates the long-term, phased elimination of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) for industrialised and developing countries.

Industrialised countries are to cut HFC use by 85% by the year 2036, while developing and newly industrialising countries are to achieve cuts of 80% and 85% respectively over the period from 2024 to 2047. The Kigali agreement thus expands the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which already established a commitment to phase out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in order to protect the ozone layer.

In addition to the historic decision, the Kigali meeting also involved various side events on addressing environmentally sound substitutes for the refrigeration sector. In this field, Proklima - implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH - showcased on several occasions its approach and projects, funded both by the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) as well as the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB).
MOP Plenary session in Kigali/©GIZ Proklima

28th Meeting of Parties to the Montreal Protocol: GIZ Side Events during the event

Kigali - During a co-hosted event with UNDP, GIZ Proklima presented a completed conversion project from HCFCs and HFCs to hydrocarbons in Swaziland. Supported by the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the BMUB, Palfridge - as the first refrigeration manufacturer in sub-Saharan Africa – decided to convert its production lines to the use of natural refrigerants.

Thanks to the conversion of the annual production of approx. 80,000 units to natural refrigerants, direct emissions of F-gases were cut by up to 19,700 tons CO2 equivalent per year. On another occasion, GIZ Proklima presented a completed IKI-demonstration project for conversion in India. The project helped the Indian manufacturer Godrej & Boyce to convert its production to systems using environmentally sound hydrocarbon refrigerants and introduce energy-efficient technology, thereby establishing a best-practice model. Since its launch in 2012, Godrej & Boyce sold up to 250,000 AC units and thus achieved a market share of over 11% in 5 star AC segment making them the third largest supplier in this segment across India.

Another GIZ-side event presented ways to integrate a HFC phase down in ongoing national mitigation actions. GIZ Proklima highlighted a range of specific tools and guidelines (e.g. to co-benefit evaluation, market & policy incentive analysis, inventory & projection tool) as well as trainings for policy makers and technicians that were developed, addressing the entire refrigeration, air-conditioning and foam (RAC&F) sector from the data collection to the implementation. The showcased activities were funded both by the BMZ as well as the BMUB.

And finally within the context of the Green Cooling Initiative, a separate event on promoting propane (R290) air-conditioners in developing countries took place. Representatives from GCI, China (FECO and Midea) as well as UNIDO presented the current development market introduction of R290 ACs in China and developing countries like Ghana. The event was co-hosted by FECO, UNIDO and UNDP.

All presentations of the side events are available on the website of the Ozone Secretariat Conference Portal.

COP22 in Marrakes: GIZ Proklima introduces new guidance for policymakers at IPEEC/U4E side event

Marrakech - On 12th of November, the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) and the United Nations Environment Program’s (UNEP) United for Efficiency (U4E) Project hosted a side event titled ‘What do NDCs need to succeed? Energy Efficiency.’ On the occasion of this event during the Conference of the Parties (COP 22) to the UN Convention on Climate Change, GIZ Proklima introduced a new policy guidance.

Representatives from the International Energy Agency and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory highlighted the huge potential of energy efficiency for the implementation of countries nationally determined contributions (NDCs). UNEP U4E presented the outcomes of the Montreal Protocol’s Kigali Amendment and its impact on energy efficiency in the area of refrigeration and air conditioning. Furthermore, the Clean Energy Ministerial Campaign (CEM) introduced its new database of the global advanced cooling challenge that enables users to find and track financial and technical data from the world’s fastest-growing markets.

GIZ was gladly given the opportunity to introduce its work, especially the fruitful cooperation between the Green Cooling Initiative (funded by the BMUB) and the UNEP U4E project on developing policy guidebooks for climate-friendly and energy-efficient refrigerators and room air conditioners (forthcoming). Additionally, GIZ Proklima emphasized the urgency for pursuing energy efficiency in combination with a transition to climate-friendly refrigerants in an integrated approach in the light of NDC implementation.

In this regard, Philipp Munzinger (GIZ Proklima Project Manager) introduced the guidance for policymakers ‘Advancing nationally determined contributions (NDCs) through climate-friendly refrigeration and air conditioning’, recently developed by the IKI-project Cool Contributions fighting Climate Change.

Chillventa 2016: GIZ organizes Expert Day on Climate-friendly Cooling

Nuremberg – For the 6th GIZ Proklima Experts Day at the Chillventa exhibition, more than 60 international representatives from industry, government, public and civil society gathered to learn about how to accelerate the transfer of climate-friendly and energy efficient technologies in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam blowing (RAC&F) sector to and within developing countries. The expert’s day was organized by the Green Cooling Initiative (GCI) funded by the BMUB.

The changing trends in regulations and in the market are especially important in aspiring to boost the technology transfer of climate-friendly and energy efficient RAC technologies. After giving a brief overview of these trends and the global climate relevance of the RAC&F sector, manufacturers, product development representatives, trainers, and project developers were invited to present best practice examples and emerging opportunities related to climate-friendly technologies in the RAC&F sector.

The case studies included amongst others hydrocarbon chiller applications from the German company Frigoteam and R-290 split Inverter ACs from Midea, one of the leading AC manufacturers in China. All presentations of the expert day have been made available for knowledge sharing. The event enabled the direct exchange of views of experts from all over the world, thereby providing knowledge on available technologies and opportunities of natural refrigerants in maximizing energy efficiency and fostering sustainability in energy consumption.

The participants expressed general agreement regarding the vast opportunities of promoting climate-friendly cooling technologies – especially for developing countries. The diverse discussions also highlighted the need for further support in enabling regulatory framework conditions, product and safety standards, and capacity building. All participants agree that this would aid in scaling up the demonstration of technologically viable solutions to sustainable sector-wide transformations.
Chillventa GIZ-Expert Day/©GIZ Proklima

Training and Workshops

Cool Training in Maintal/©GIZ Proklima

Cool Training: More than 45 international refrigeration and air-conditioning technicians and experts trained

Maintal - On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) GIZ Proklima has successfully organized three “Cool Trainings” in Germany in 2016. These trainings were held in May, July and October and are designed for specialized RAC experts and technician that are active in developing countries and emerging economies.

The trainings were carried out in cooperation with Bundesfachschule Kälte-Klima-Technik (BFS) Vocational Training Centre. The aim was to provide comprehensive knowledge and capacity for the operation and maintenance of cooling technology using natural refrigerants such as Propane (R290), Carbon Dioxide (R744) and Ammonia (R717).

The training was composed of 30% theory and 70% practical work while addressing the application of natural refrigerants. It also involved excursions to innovative enterprises in Germany such as refrigerant companies, RAC components manufacturers, and the refrigeration plants that use natural substances. A special trip was organized to the Chillventa exhibition.

More than 45 participants from countries all around the world were awarded with their certificates after a successful finish of the training.
Cool Training in Maintal/©GIZ Proklima

NAMA-Training: Caribbean island states and making climate friendly cooling pay off and financeable

St. Kitts & Nevis - More than 50 policy makers from 15 Caribbean Islands came together in September to learn about the relevance of the cooling sector to the global environment and energy systems. The participants were made up of officials from government and agencies responsible for energy and finance, project owners and developers, as well as service providers and investors of energy projects.

The GIZ implemented this workshop on behalf of the IKI-project “Development of NAMAs (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions) for the refrigeration and foam production sectors (RAC&F NAMA)” financed by the BMUB.

This pilot training was the last part of a three folded NAMA training package on the NAMA development in the refrigeration, air conditioning and foam (RAC&F) sector. The training focused mainly on financing and the economic feasibility and cost calculation of cooling systems and their scaling up potential.

The first part of the training specifically concentrated on NAMAs, which are actions under the umbrella of a national governmental initiative to reduce GHG emissions relative to a business-as-usual (BAU) emission scenario. Their design, rationale and financing options in the Caribbean RAC&F sector occupied center stage.

The second part elaborated on investment-grade calculation, analysis and financial modelling of energy efficient projects. Introduction to economic calculations and calculation tools, presentation of marketing and financing options will be, for instance, some of the main components.

The workshops are being hosted by the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat in collaboration with the Caribbean Development Bank (CBD) and GIZ, through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technical Assistance (REETA) Programme, the Sector Programme Technology Cooperation in the Energy Sector and the IKI-project.
Participants of the training /©GIZ Proklima

GCI-Workshop: Implementing technologies with natural refrigerants in developing countries

Edinburgh - On occasion of the 12th Gustav Lorentzen Working Fluids Conference (August 21st to 24th 2016), the Green Cooling Initiative (GCI) held a workshop on technical barriers to the implementation of natural refrigerants (NR) in developing countries. Several projects and activities were described, covering widespread application of R290 in residential and commercial ACs, HC in commercial refrigeration and R290 in large cold rooms.

The GIZ and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) as co-host of the event shared their experiences in supporting the developing countries, in particular the technical challenges encountered. In essence, four main categories of barriers were materialized: lacking service infrastructure, advanced understanding of special design requirements, restrictions in existing (or non-national) safety standards and incomplete foundation in general refrigeration engineering. It was acknowledged that many of the exemplified barriers could potentially be resolved through capacity building.

These were the outcomes with regards to the categories of barriers:

  1. Infrastructure There is an insufficiency in high quality training/trained technicians (e.g., on HC) and often a fear of technicians to “accept” and tolerate flammability. Further, local availability of appropriate tools and equipment turn out to be problem. Additionally in some regions/sectors the “turnover” of technicians happens to be quite high. Consequently, training offers in areas where new technologies (e.g. HC) have not yet been widespread tend to be of limited impact. The technician training therefore needs to be more focused and set up in conjunction with the formalization of national service sectors, e.g., through certification systems and the likes.
  2. Special design and requirements It was remarked by several participants that there was poor reliance of external/international experts or experts from different sectors (e.g., for flammability safety). Reason being the yielded high cost, slow reaction time and other frustrations associated with dependence upon external sources. Possibly a local “expert centers” could be established.
  3. Safety standards Obstructive requirements in international standards impose stringent rules thus limiting product range, excessive design cost, etc. Whereas the absence of national standards potentially constrict any further development. Thus improved international standards and model requirements for adoption nationally would be useful.
  4. Incomplete foundation It was noted that there can be a substantial lack of fundamental refrigeration technical knowledge (irrespective of what type of refrigerants are being used). In this case it can result in errors, misdirection, faults, etc., that may ordinarily be tolerated with conventional refrigerants but when applied with NRs either results in a more detrimental problem or become showcases as negative examples. Again, this has to be remedied through actions such as improved academic/engineering type courses.

Project News

Solar cooling in Jordan: Two new solar cooling systems were commissioned in Amman

Amman - In October 2016, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) successfully commissioned the installation of two new solar Cooling Systems. The two solar systems were installed at the Irbid Chamber of Commerce and the Royal Culture Centre in Amman. Using solar energy, Jordan can cool buildings in a climate friendly manner.

Jordan has a rapidly increasing demand for air-conditioning. Currently, the available technologies in the region are chillers with low efficiencies, refrigerants with ozone or climate-damaging effects, and high leakage rates. Overall, cooling of commercial buildings in Jordan contributes to about 600,000 tons of CO2 equivalent annually, which corresponds to the emission from 120,000 passenger vehicles per year. At the same time, Jordan is one of the global with optimal conditions for the use of solar power in combination with air-conditioning systems.

The project aims at realizing a technology transfer through demonstration projects for solar cooling facilities by GIZ. The operation and maintenance team work hand in hand with the Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin) -the provider of the absorption chiller and Millennium Energy Industries, the local engineering firm which sets up the cooling system and integrate it into the solar thermal field.

This demonstration project is part of the “Solar Cooling for Industry and Commerce” IKI-project implemented by the Jordanian Ministry of Environment’s (MoEnv), National Ozone Unit (NOU) and GIZ, which was funded by the BMUB.

The project is considered an important first step within the scheme to promote climate friendly cooling technologies in Jordan through the use of natural, non-ozone-depleting, and climate-friendly cooling agents, as well as benefiting from the high levels of solar irradiation in the region.

Partner Profile

Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN)

Eschborn - The Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTNC) facilitates the provision of information, training and support to build and/or strengthen the capacity of developing countries. It also helps to identify technology options, make technology choices, operate, maintain and adapt technology. As part of this effort, the CTCN strives to identify, disseminate and assist in developing analytical tools, policies and best practices for country-driven planning.

The GIZ is a CTCN Consortium Partner and the GCI is a network member of the CTCN. During 28th Meeting of Parties to the Montreal Protocol GIZ presented CTCN’s technical assistance in Namibia as part of the regional Green Cooling Africa Initiative (GCAI) as a best practice example on how to enable countries to utilize effective and sustainable climate technology options to create a shift in countries’ cooling sectors. The GCAI aims at establishing a prototype best practice approach for Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius and Namibia.

Read more

Country Profile*: Indonesia

With a population of 253 million, an urbanization rate of 53.2% and an electrification rate of 71.4%, Indonesia’s stock of cooling appliances is quite large compared to the other Southeast Asian countries: In 2016, the country had in use an estimated 26.9 million domestic refrigerators, 8.39 million car air conditioners and 7.87 million unitary air conditioning appliances (All numbers according to GCI calculations - for more information see the GCI country data).Expected unit sales in these sectors are estimated to triple or even quadruple by 2030 (Figure 1).
The estimated overall emissions from the RAC sectors amount to 79.4 Mt CO2eq in 2016 (Figure 2).
In a business-as-usual scenario, this number can be expected to rise to 215 Mt CO2eq in the year 2030. However, an estimated 92 Mt CO2eq could be saved in 2030 when considering the use of climate friendly natural refrigerants, changes in the system design and improvements in the energy efficiency (Figure 3).
About 44 % of the total emission reduction potential can be achieved through a change to climate friendly natural refrigerants (Figure 4).
You can also find this data – and much more – by conducting your own research on the GCI website at

*In this rubric, we want to give some insight into the potential of emissions savings in the refrigeration and air conditioning sectors by showing data and figures related to one specific country. We will pick a different country each time. If you would like to have your country portrayed in one of the next newsletters, please send us your suggestion.

GCI Network Corner

Centro Studio Galileo – new GCI-member

Eschborn - The Green Cooling (GCI) Network keeps on growing! It aims at accelerating the transfer of environmentally friendly technologies in the RAC sector. GCI brings together companies, ministry organizations and non-governmental organizations and initiatives. Our newest member of the Green Cooling Network is Centro Studio Galileo.

Amongst other activities Centro Studi Galileo (CSG) has, for the past 40 years, been organizing training courses, seminars and conferences in the field of refrigeration, air conditioning and renewable energy in support of Green Jobs, the Green Economy and the Green New Deal. Centro Studi Galileo has received the support of the Italian Ministry of the Environment, Foreign Affairs, Economic Development and of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers for these activities.

Centro Studio Galileo is a major entity in organizing and conducting trainings for the safe application of natural refrigerants. One of their training programs was carried out in collaboration with UNEP and UNIDO in Gambia, Tunis and Iraq. The aim of this project was to achieve the correct and shared knowledge of natural refrigerant fluids environmental benefits. Training included a detailed explanation about the physical features of hydrocarbons as refrigerants.

Hydrocarbons are considered as possible substitutes of the fluids used at the moment (CFC, HCFC and HFC). A full comparison regarding performances of natural refrigerant fluids and the synthetic refrigerants was part of the session. Following a detailed explanation of main and significant industrial, commercial and domestic applications, the analysis covered the most common and available equipment design. Participants were involved in an open discussion presenting their personal professional experiences in the form of debate.

The Green Cooling Network supports Centro Studio Galileo in their efforts, by connecting them to relevant ministries and organizations aiming to improve the knowledge of safely applying natural refrigerants.

Read more about Centro Galileo here.

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