The technical handbook and its modules aim to serve policy makers and practitioners in developing countries as a comprehensive guideline for the preparation and implementation of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA) in the RAC and foam sectors.
In order to meet the 2°C target, assuming that global emissions are not allowed to peak much later than 2020, it will be necessary to achieve emission reductions of at least 3.8 % per annum from 2020 to 20502. The effort for emission reductions requires the collaboration of all countries, including developing countries, and all sectors.
The approach of this handbook is sector specific for the RAC&F sectors and its subsectors. In addition to the guidelines and concepts on how to prepare sector specific NAMAs, the handbook is complemented by several practical tools and methodologies for policy makers.
NAMAs are voluntary policies or activities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that
- are appropriate for the specific implementing country
- recognise different capabilities and capacities of each country, and
- combine the development agenda with climate protection targets.
The handbook, which was first published in 2013, is structured into ten modules. Modules 1-5 are related to establishing the GHG emissions baseline and reduction scenarios. Modules 6-10 contain guidance on how to prepare suitable roadmaps and to provide for enabling policy, market and financing environments. Further the modules offer guidelines for the development of implementation plans including aspects for the realisation of co-benefits and the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of emission reductions.
Technical Handbook: NAMAs in the Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Foam Sectors
This introduction gives an overview of the ten modules of the handbook, its objectives and structure. Furthermore, it presents the background on rising HFC emissions and the benefits of NAMAs for countries.
Module 1: Inventory
Module 1 provides guidance on how to set up a national F-gas inventory that serves as the basis for the design of a NAMA. A detailed emission inventory is the first step in any political action to reduce emissions. GHGs for the national reporting to the UNFCCC are regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. They include F-gases such as HFCs, which are used as refrigerants and foam blowing agents.
Annex 1 describes the calculation steps which are used in the HFC Inventory & Projection tool, to derive current emissions, demand and banks of HFCs for national inventories.
The practical guidance will help local consultant agencies to conduct national F-gas inventories, the fundamental basis for any NAMA in the RAC&F sector. It also highlights what kind of data are needed to feed a vintage bottom-up stock model.
Module 2: Cooling Needs Assessment
Module 2 provides an approach to estimate the stock of RAC&F systems in a country based on assessing the country-specific cooling needs. The stock of the systems in a country is the key indicator to estimate current and future emissions from the sector. The experience in many developing countries shows that stock data collected empirically is incomplete or lacks consistency. The approach in Module 2 identifies key factors for the current and future demand for RAC&F systems such as population, number of households, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, cooling degree-days and electrification and urbanisation rates.
Module 3: Technical Options
Module 3 contains guidance on identifying technical options (TOs) for all RAC&F sectors suitable for reducing direct and indirect emissions within a country. The most relevant TOs are analysed, including the replacement of substances, reduction of leakages and improvements in energy efficiency as well as their availability. In addition, barriers such as safety-related restrictions, implementation costs and technical implications are addressed together with how to overcome these barriers by deploying key measures (safety standards, system specific training).
Module 4: Economic Assessment
Module 4 focuses on assessing the costs of the individual abatement options. It helps stakeholders to identify the most suitable cost-effective options selected for mitigation actions. The marginal abatement costs are analysed for the selection of the most suitable TOs. For the majority of RAC systems, the introduction of TOs will result in incremental upfront costs of not more than ten %. Once the increased energy efficiency on the operation of the systems is also taken into account, climate-friendly technologies are on average 20-60 % cheaper than conventional systems. The marginal abatement costs per t CO2eq avoided are negative, representing net savings (after the removal of barriers) for most systems.
Module 5: Mitigation Scenarios
Module 5 guides users in generating mitigation scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are
developed on the basis of the projected number of systems per RAC&F sector with
their respective BAU and emissions reduced. The BAU emissions are shown for
standard systems. Mitigated emissions result from the penetration of TOs, which
are selected by considering cost-effectiveness (EUR/t CO2). Demonstrating different
emission pathways and calculating the mitigation potential is a key element of
NAMAs. The module includes a mitigation and cost tool that allows the calculation
of the BAU and mitigation scenarios for specific appliances and various technical
options. Additionally, the marginal abatement costs are provided for each technology
Module 6: Technology Roadmap for the RAC&F Sectors
Module 6 supports policy makers in developing sector specific technology roadmaps for the RAC&F sectors as a strategic tool for planning and decision-making. The module contains milestones on a sector and subsector specific emission reduction pathway and provides goals to support regulatory, technology and market environments.
Module 7: Measurement, Reporting, Verification
Module 7 outlines measuring, reporting, verifying approach that is specific to the RAC&F sectors. The approach suggested is sufficiently stringent to meet the requirements of donors for supported NAMAs. The approach is aligned with the stock based inventory of the Tier 2 methodology developed by IPCC in 2006.
Module 8.1: Policy Framework
Module 8.1 guides policy makers on policy options for RAC&F NAMAs. The policy tools recommended are based on a review of international best practices, in particular from the implementation and practical enforcement of the European F-Gas legislation. Furthermore, the tools recommended are aligned with the policy instruments of the Montreal Protocol addressing particularly the use of HCFCs in refrigeration and foam systems. The suggested policy tools cover a range of different instruments (informative, legal, economic).
Module 8.2: Financial Framework
Module 8.2 guides policy makers on financing options for RAC&F NAMAs. Unilateral, supported and possible future credited NAMAs are analysed with a view to recommending financing tools. It is suggested that international financing for supported NAMAs be sought for higher ambition levels on mitigation beyond commonly adopted policies, standards and technologies.
Module 9: Implementation Plan
Module 9 contains a model implementation plan for RAC&F NAMAs. The model plan includes five elements:
- A sectoral plan in order to establish a sound inventory basis, emission pathways and to identify the policy gaps,
- Milestone based time framework, staged in different phases,
- Inter-ministerial based governance structure to set up an inter-ministerial steering group and to identify implementing institutions and relevant stakeholders,
- Funding and financing plan listing the requirements of the NAMA registry and donors on the minimum information to be provided for the NAMA financing plan,
- MRV system.
Module 10: Co-Benefits for the NAMA Country
Module 10 provides an analytical framework and tools to estimate and illustrate the co-benefits for RAC&F NAMAs. Co-benefits are of major importance for the acceptance of a RAC&F NAMA, motivating and engaging stakeholders. Further, they are key elements in supporting sustainable development within a country. The module highlights several co-benefits including:
- Environmental protection
- Economic development
- Social development